WATER QUALITY AND CONTAMINANTS

It can be said that the water in nature is pure. This water is usually rich in dissolved matter, suspended solids, and also gases. The concentration of substances and the chemical composition is a factor in the quality of the water. The quality is measured according to the purpose of the water and varies as a function of the requirements and use made by us so the definition must refer to the use made of water by man.

The polluted water

Water that contains a substance that causes a change in the composition of the water and the properties of the water and harms a variety of living or important organisms, as a result of which the use of the drinking water that is required is therefore called “freshwater”.


There are many factors for water pollution both natural and human factors, to clarify high levels of calcium that can produce scale is not considered polluted water, scale is not polluting! Tartar has no health value but tartar is not harmful to health but mainly to the water pipes, sanitary ware, etc., but our war on tartar lowers the water content when substances but (chemicals) reach aquifers, they have examples of infections:

  • Air pollution – causes “acid-rain” that contains sulfur oxide

  • as well as nitrogen that causes water reservoirs to be missed

  • Over pumping – from the aquifer and lakes causes salinization

  • Sewage from homes that contain organic matter and bacteria and especially detergents from the soap

  • Industrial effluents containing organic derivatives, heavy metals, acids, detergents, and various types pf fie; effluents

  • Leakage of fuels from underground reservoirs mainly of gas stations

  • Fertilizer and pesticide that moves slowly from the sprayed water to the water reservoirs

  • Water burden “from ships and ships containing fuel”

  • Landfills are dumped like Niger waste sites into groundwater

  • The floods that cause alluvial accumulation in water bodies

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A substance that causes water pollution is called a “water pollutant.” Pollution usually causes a change in the taste of the water, the color of the water and even makes it a dangerous liquid for the entire environment that consumes water.


The main water pollution comes from industry. We need technology that enables the use of water in closed circuits, thus reducing water consumption on the one hand and quality damage on the other hand:

  • Planning an industrial park where the waste and water from one plant is used as the raw materials for the other plant etc

  • Aquatic plants that know how to absorb from the water as a substance such as heavy metal and chlorides in high percentages

  • Devaluation originally – to consume raw materials with reduced pollution, chemical pesticide transitions to biological pesticides in agriculture

Contaminants are classified according to size because the size of the particle determines the method of filtration and/or purification. A large particle is invested and thus separated from the water.
 

The size of the suspended particle exceeds 1 micron so it floats on the water and gives turbidity to the water. It is very simple to separate suspended particles from the water by a  filter. The colloidal particles are particles smaller than one micron, and therefore float and raise the level of turbidity unlike floating particles which can be filtered and
it is actually impossible to separate colloidal particles in a simple physical way due to their size.


But we already know that “not only size determines” the filtration technique but also the pollutant component. The organic pollutants originate from the living creature and are treated with a decomposing bacterium that turns it into a soluble and non-toxic inorganic substance. In such a situation the anaerobic bacterium will feast on the pools of water and release into the water in the process of anaerobic respiration a bad-smelling gas reminiscent of hydrogen sulfide. This is the condition in which the water changes color to a murky heat.

The chemical pollutants

Including nitrogen salts, phosphorus and lead mostly not by the bacteria so it is advisable to match each pollutant with a different chemical composition that will react with it and turn it into a non-toxic substance. For drastic increase of organic nutrients and decrease in oxygen concentrations such as nitrates and phosphorylation. Chemical contaminants can erupt as a result of the discharge of industrial effluent into the river water, for example.

Causes of water pollution can be separated into 3 categories:


* Chemical factors
* Physical factors

* Biological factor